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# 经济代写|Conclusio 宏观经济学代写

## 经济代写

This chapter adopted a macro approach to understand the determinants of aggregate output and employment levels, the first of the two objectives Smith assigned to political economy. In Section $4.2$, the key arguments found in the marginalist and Keynesian theories of output and employment were outlined, and the latter was favoured over the former for its conceptual strength and explanatory prowess. In the marginalist theory, the free operation of market forces generates full employment of labour, whereas Keynesian theory demonstrates that there is no tendency to full employment of labour. Section $4.3$ discussed macrodynamics in the open economy, drawing upon Section 3.5. Here, we outlined the role the exchange rate plays in determining the output and employment levels in the Indian economy. The role of geopolitics in international trade was mentioned after a succinct discussion about the current account and the nature of India’s commodity imports and export destinations.

Two important qualifications are in order. First, in countries like India, which face supply-side constraints such as inadequate physical infrastructure, rough supply chains in agriculture and high social costs from labour migration, the adjustment of aggregate supply to aggregate demand can be slow and costly. Second, we assume that the demand and supply of labour are sensitive slave-labour or other such forms. In India, as has been noted in the previous chapters, caste-labour occupies a central presence and, therefore, the adjustment of employment we expect to see based on the theory might not happen in reality. In the short, poignant story, ‘Thakur’s Well’ (1932) by Premchand, Gangi, who is not allowed to draw water from the well due to her Dalit identity, overhears the following conversation between two women who are allowed to draw water from Thakur’s well.
If we aren’t slaves, then what are we? Don’t you get your food and clothes from them? Somehow or the other you also manage to get ten or five rupees. In what ways are slaves any different? (p. 4)
While the above extract is indicative of labour immobility arising from extreme poverty, Gangi’s immobility is owing to her being Dalit. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the employment in India warrants a scrutiny of the networks and cultural privileges enjoyed by the
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OUTPUT AND EMPLOYMENT LEVELS
dominant castes in securing well-paying jobs, both in private and government sectors (Section $7.2$ contains a short indirect discussion on this issue).
A concise and accessible account of the Keynesian vis-à-vis the marginalist theory of output and employment is found in Tony Aspromourgos’s 2009 article ‘John Maynard Keynes and the Preservation of Liberal Capitalism’, published in the journal Australian Quarterly (vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 17-24). For longer accounts of Keynes’s theory and policy proposals, consult these books, both published in 2009, and written in the aftermath of the 2008 Global Financial Crisis: Peter Clarke’s Keynes: The Rise, Fall, and Return of the 20tb Century’s Most Influential Economist (London: Bloomsbury) and Robert Skidelsky’s Keynes: The Return of the Master (New York: Public Affairs). To obtain a critical perspective on of the Master (New York: Public Affairs). To obtain a critical perspective on the role of FDI in India, look at my 2016 article ‘The Foreign Hand Isn’t critical account of the different approaches found in contemporary marginalist macroeconomics, at an intermediate level, is available in Chapter 7 (especially pp. 146-59) of Alessandro Roncaglia’s 2019 book The Age of Fragmentation: A History of Contemporary Economic Thought (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). A good follow-up to this chapter is the 1983 book Keynes’s Economics and the Theory of Value and Distribution, edited by John Eatwell and Murray you might be happy to learn that 7 out of the 15 chapters were earlier published as articles in the Cambridge Journal of Economics.

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Tony Aspromourgos 2009 年发表于《澳大利亚季刊》（第 81 卷，第 81 卷， 4 号，第 17-24 页）。有关凯恩斯理论和政策建议的更详细说明，请参阅这些书籍，它们均于 2009 年出版，并在 2008 年全球金融危机之后撰写：彼得克拉克的凯恩斯：20 世纪最具影响力经济学家的兴衰与回归 (伦敦：布卢姆斯伯里）和罗伯特斯基德尔斯基的凯恩斯：大师归来（纽约：公共事务）。获得对大师的批判性观点（纽约：公共事务）。要获得对外国直接投资在印度的作用的批判性观点，请查看我 2016 年的文章“外国之手不是对当代边际主义宏观经济学中发现的不同方法的批判性解释，在中间水平，可在第 7 章（尤其是第. 146-59) 亚历山德罗·龙卡利亚 (Alessandro Roncaglia) 的 2019 年著作《碎片化时代：当代经济思想史》（剑桥：剑桥大学出版社）。本章的一个很好的后续是 1983 年出版的凯恩斯经济学和价值与分配理论，由 John Eatwell 和 Murray 编辑，您可能会很高兴得知 15 章中有 7 章早先作为文章发表在剑桥杂志上经济学。

## 经济代考

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## 编码理论代写

1. 数据压缩（或信源编码
2. 前向错误更正（或信道编码
3. 加密编码
4. 线路码

## 复分析代考

(1) 提到复变函数 ，首先需要了解复数的基本性左和四则运算规则。怎么样计算复数的平方根， 极坐标与 $x y$ 坐标的转换，复数的模之类的。这些在高中的时候囸本上都会学过。
(2) 复变函数自然是在复平面上来研究问题，此时数学分析里面的求导数之尖的运算就会很自然的 引入到复平面里面，从而引出解析函数的定义。那/研究解析函数的性贡就是关楗所在。最关键的 地方就是所谓的Cauchy一Riemann公式，这个是判断一个函数是否是解析函数的关键所在。
(3) 明白解析函数的定义以及性质之后，就会把数学分析里面的曲线积分 $a$ 的概念引入复分析中， 定义几乎是一致的。在引入了闭曲线和曲线积分之后，就会有出现复分析中的重要的定理: Cauchy 积分公式。 这个是易分析的第一个重要定理。