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# 澳洲代写|天文学代写Astronomy代写|PHYS2100

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## 澳洲代写|天文学代写Astronomy代写|Emerging Observational Technologies

Since the pioneering research of Galileo, advances in telescope capabilities have been the source of more and richer data to constrain cosmological speculation. The current generation of astronomers has seen photographic techniques increasingly augmented by electronic image intensifiers. Improvements in photon detectors, such as chargecoupled devices, are beginning to approach their limits, so that achieving substantial gains will involve increasing the aperture in the next generation of optical and infrared instruments. The twin Keck telescopes, which can be used as an optical interferometer of 85 -m baseline, are the largest general-purpose telescopes on earth. A consortium of nations have built Gemini, a matched pair of 8-m telescopes, one in Hawaii and one in Chile. Arizona astronomers have built the Large Binocular Telescope, which will carry two $8.4-\mathrm{m}$ mirrors in a single mounting. The European Southern Observatory has completed the first of four $8.2-\mathrm{m}$ telescopes that will eventually observe as a single Very Large Telescope from the Andes in Chile. Even larger telescopes are planned, and the use of adaptive optics will endow modern telescopes with “seeing” much better than that possible in the past.

## 澳洲代写|天文学代写Astronomy代写|Concepts and Mathematical Tools

The search for a viable extension of GUTs to a theory of everything (TOE), which would include quantum gravity as well as the strong and electroweak interactions, is an active area of particle theory research. The energies at which such unification was achieved in nature are presumably even higher than those for GUTs. Thus, no data from accelerators, even in the most optimistic projections of foreseeable future technology, can serve to constrain speculation as well as does information from cosmology. The currently fashionable attempts to derive a TOE are based on “supersymmetry,” which is the idea that the fundamental Lagrangian contains equal numbers of Bose and Fermi fields and that they can be transformed into each other by a supersymmetry. This immediately doubles the particle spectrum, associating with each particle thus far observed (or predicted by GUTs) a “superpartner” of opposite quantum statistics. There is at present no experimental evidence for the existence of any of these superpartners, inviting doubt as to the necessity of the supersymmetry assumption. However, supersymmetric theories have the potential to address one otherwise unanswered issue of cosmology: Why is the cosmological constant so small, perhaps precisely zero? Supersymmetric theories are the only known quantum field theories that are sensitive to the vacuum energy level. This appears to imply that a derivation of the cosmological constant from first principles should be possible within a supersymmetric theory, but the problem remains unsolved.

## Matlab代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。