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# 电气工程代写|FPGA Verilog programming代写|ECE4305L Full Dual-port Memory

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## 电气工程代写|FPGA Verilog programming代写|Full Dual-port Memory

For as much complexity as a full-featured dual-port memory contains, the verilog code is still relatively simple. Since each port operates from its own dedicated clock, we use separate identical (other than signal names) always-blocks for each. Whereas for the simple DP memory, each port was dedicated as either a write or a read, now each port includes both modes. Since each port shares an address for reading and writing, the question arises as to what happens to the read output during write cycles. In the case of this code, the operation is essentially write-before-read, meaning that when wr_[ $[\mathrm{a} / \mathrm{b}]$ is active, the data presented on dat_in_[a/b] is copied to the read signal dat_out_[a/b]. However, whereas for the simple DP memory code the write-before-read was implied, here the operation is explicitly defined with the “dat_out_[a/b] $<=$ dat_in_[a/b]” assignment inside the write “if” statement. Analyzing the always-block, we see that first the read assignment is made, and if this is not a write cycle (i.e., wr_[a/b] is not active), then we are done. However, if this is a write cycle, (wr_[ $a / b]$ is active), then the write data (dat_in_[a/b]) replaces the value that was read from the memory array on the read output signal (dat_out_[a/b]) before the write data is loaded into the specified address location.

But this introduces an important point. For the first time we see a signal being assigned values from within two different statements within an always-block there were previously multiple assignments-the if-else and case statements-but they were all within the same statement. This is allowed in verilog, and the rule is that the assignment that is ultimately used is the last one executed. Of course, the “last one” may be different for each execution of the always-block i.e., from clock to clock.

## 电气工程代写|FPGA Verilog programming代写|Single-port Memory

We introduce a new I/O port type; the “data” signal is declared as an “inout.” This is verilog’s way of defining bi-directional signals. If “wr_en” is active, data driven onto the bi-directional data bus (data_io) from some source external to the FPGA is loaded into the “address” memory location. The data at this location is also registered into “data_out”, but this goes into the bit-bucket.

If instead of “wr_en”, “rd” is active, then along with the data in memory being registered as “data_out”, the active “rd” is also registered (i.e., delayed) as “rd_d1”. During the following clock when “rd_d1” is now active the memory data being held in “data_out” is driven onto the external bi-directional data bus “data_io” by the assign statement. Thus, for reads, the addressed memory data appears one clock after the read (rd) control is active. You may remember that this is how the dual-port structures worked as well. When reads are not occurring i.e., when “rd_d1″ is not active the bus is tri-stated via ” 16 ‘bz”-meaning “16 bits of highimpedance ‘ $z$ ‘”.

This assignment statement-using tri-state internal buffers-is the key method to implement bi-directional buses. The following diagram illustrates the tri-state buffer as it would appear in our code.

## 电气工程代写|FPGA VERILOG PROGRAMMING代写|FULL DUAL-PORT MEMORY

otherthansignalnames总是阻止每个。而对于简单的 DP 存储器，每个端口都专用于写入或读取，现在每个端口都包含两种模式。由于每个端口共字一个读写地 址，因此出现了一个问题，即在写周期中读输出会发生什么。在这段代码的情况下，操作本质上是先写后读，这意味着当 wr_

## Matlab代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。