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# 平面设计代写|平面设计代写Graphic Design代考|DECO2200 Controlling Exposure

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## 平面设计代写|平面设计代写Graphic Design代考|Controlling Exposure

At its most basic, photography is the art of capturing light. This was originally done on glass, then on film and these days using image sensors in digital cameras that record data. Cameras utilize three elements, aperture, shutter speed and ISO, to control the amount of light captured, or the exposure of the photo. Exposure refers to the lightness or darkness of an image.
The Exposure Triangle
The Exposure Triangle is composed of aperture, shutter speed and ISO (Figure 8.1). In the triangle, as in a camera, these three elements work together to generate the exposure of a photo. When one element is adjusted, the other two elements must also be adjusted in order to maintain consistent exposure across photos, which is the desired outcome.

Cameras shooting in an automatic mode (Auto), including cell phone cameras, will determine the appropriate settings for aperture, shutter speed and ISO based on the amount of available light when a photo is taken. However, it is important to understand these elements in order to adjust them as needed to accommodate a subject or location or to achieve a particular look in a photo.

Aperture is an adjustable opening in the camera lens that limits the amount of light passing through the lens and hitting the image sensor. As the aperture is adjusted, the depth of field changes, affecting how much of the photo is in focus or is completely sharp. When the aperture is small, little light is let into the lens (less exposure), which produces a large depth of field. A large depth of field means that more of the photo is in sharp focus. As the aperture is opened or “stopped up,” more light is let into the lens (more exposure), which produces a shallower depth of field. In a photo with a shallow depth of field, the subject may be in focus while the background or foreground is out of focus or blurry. Compare the depths of field (large vs. shallow) in the two photos of sunflowers in Figure 8.2. Notice the relative blurriness of the background in the photo illustrating shallow depth of field.
Unit of measure: f-stop // A stop is a doubling or halving of the amount of light let into the camera lens when taking a photo.

Examples: (less exposure) f/64, $\mathrm{f} / 32, \mathrm{f} / 16, \mathrm{f} / 11, \mathrm{f} / 8, \mathrm{f} / 5.6, \mathrm{f} / 4, \mathrm{f} / 2.8, \mathrm{f} / 1.4$ (more exposure)

## 平面设计代写|平面设计代写Graphic Design代考|Seeing the Shot

The design concepts presented in Chapter 2: The Elements and Principles of Design also apply to photography, and consideration of these can help the photographer “see the shot” through the camera’s lens. Seeing the shot refers to looking at a scene and selectively isolating a subject or area of interest. What is left out of the photo is often as important as what is included, because this can minimize distractions and center attention on the subject.

A helpful practice for isolating a subject is to use your hands to narrow your field of view. Hold your hands as shown in Figure 8.5, then look through the “aperture” (the space created between your hands) and scan your environment. What around you would make an interesting photo? Just as a camera narrows your area of view to frame a photo, so too does this simple technique.
Types of Camera Shots
To expand this discussion of framing a photo, let’s review the basic types of camera shots used in photography. Note: These are also some of the same camera shots used in cinematography and videography. This common language is useful when communicating the visual elements of a shot, particularly the size of the subject and its relationship with the background.

A. Extreme long shot (ELS) or extreme wide shot (EWS): The ELS is used to show the space in which the visual story is taking place and thus is sometimes referred to as an establishing shot. The subject may be shown in the distance.
B. Long shot (LS) or wide shot (WS): The LS shows the entire subject without filling the frame. Instead, the shot may be dominated by the background. This shot often sets the scene and can serve as an establishing shot in place of an ELS/EWS.

C. Medium shot (MS): The MS shows part of the subject in detail. When the subject is a person, the MS generally frames him or her from the waist up. The focus of the shot may be the subject, although some background is still showing.

Camera shots: (A) extreme long shot (ELS); (B) long shot (LS); (C) medium shot (MS); (D) medium close-up (MCU); (E) close-up (CU); and (F) extreme close-up (ECU). In flight over the Rio Grande, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

D. Medium close-up (MCU): The MCU shows the subject in more detail, falling between the MS and the CU. For a person as a subject, the MCU usually frames him or her from the chest or shoulders up.
E. Close-up (CU): The CU fills the frame with the subject. This could be a person’s head or face, or the person’s hands if he or she is holding something important.
F. Extreme close-up (ECU): The ECU features a small area or detail of the subject. For a person, this could be their eyes or mouth.

Each of these shots used for the same subject would create a unique photo with a distinctive focal point or area of attention, as shown in Figure 8.6.

## 平面设计代写|平面设计代写GRAPHIC DESIGN代考|SEEING THE SHOT

A. 极远射 $E L S$ 或超广角镜头 $E W S$ : ELS 用于显示视觉故事发生的空间，因此有时被称为定场镜头。主体可能会在远处显示。
B、远射 $L S$ 或广角镜头 $W S$ : LS 显示整个被摄体而不填满画面。相反，镜头可能以背景为主。这个镜头经常设置场景，可以作为 ELS/EWS 的定位镜头。
C. 中景 $M S: M S$ 详细显示了部分主题。当被摄对象是人时，MS 通常从腰部以上对他或她进行构图。镜头的焦点可能是主体，㞔管仍然显示了一些背景。

D. 中特写 $M C U$ : MCU 更详细地显示主题，介于 MS 和 CU 之间。对于作为主体的人，MCU 通常从胸部或肩部向上取景。
E、特写 $C U: C U$ 用主体填充画面。这可能是一个人的头或脸，或者如果他或她拿着重要的东西，他或她的手。
F. 极端特写 $E C U: \mathrm{ECU}$ 的特点是主体的小区域或细节。对于一个人来说，这可能是他们的眼睛或嘴巴。

## Matlab代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。