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# 经济代写|Keynesian theory of output and employment 宏观经济学代写

## 经济代写

Keynesian theory of output and employment
In what follows, the Keynesian theory of output and employment is explained with the assistance of simple graphs in a two-dimensional plane. We assign the values of aggregate supply (or aggregate output) to the $x$-axis and those of aggregate demand to the $\mathrm{y}$-axis.
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MACROECONOMICS
First, let us represent the macroeconomic equilibrium-aggregate demand equals aggregate supply $(\mathrm{AD}=\mathrm{AS})$ – in the graph. While discussing theory, remember that we are at all times referring to planned magnitudes. In a state of macroeconomic equilibrium, when aggregate demand is INR 158 trillion, aggregate supply must be INR 158 trillion. Or, when aggregate demand is INR 596 trillion, aggregate supply must be INR 596 trillion. By drawing a 45-degree line, we obtain a straight line that connects all the points at which aggregate demand equals aggregate supply.

All the points on the $\mathrm{AD}=\mathrm{AS}$ line are points of macroeconomic equilibrium. Let us now think about how to draw the AD line. In a two-sector econony, planned aggregate demand is made up of planned aggregate consumption and planned aggregate investment. As Keynes writes, aggregate demand “can be derived only from present consumption or from prescnt provision for futurc consumption” (Keynes 1936, p. 104). That is, it is through current investment that an economy provides for future consumption.

Does aggregate consumption have a systematic connection with aggregate income? The Keynesian theory postulates a systematic relationship between the two, which can be expressed in a functional form. In a two-sector economy with households and firms, if aggregate income (Y) increases by say INR 50 trillion, how much of it will translate into an increase in aggregate consumption (C)? To put it differently, if aggregate income increases by one unit, by how much does planned aggregate consumption increase? The Keynesian theory makes the following two reasonable assumptions. If $Y$ increases by INR 50 trillion, C will not increase by INR 50 trillion; that is, the entire increase in aggregate income will not be devoted to aggregate consumption. And if Y increases by INR 50 trillion, C will increase by at least some positive amount;

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$\mathrm{AD}=\mathrm{AS}$ 线上的所有点都是宏观经济均衡点。现在让我们考虑如何绘制 AD 线。在两部门经济中，计划总需求由计划总消费和计划总投资组成。正如凯恩斯所写，总需求“只能来自当前消费或未来消费的预先准备”（Keynes 1936, p. 104）。也就是说，一个经济体通过当前的投资为未来的消费提供了条件。

## 经济代考

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## 编码理论代写

1. 数据压缩（或信源编码
2. 前向错误更正（或信道编码
3. 加密编码
4. 线路码

## 复分析代考

(1) 提到复变函数 ，首先需要了解复数的基本性左和四则运算规则。怎么样计算复数的平方根， 极坐标与 $x y$ 坐标的转换，复数的模之类的。这些在高中的时候囸本上都会学过。
(2) 复变函数自然是在复平面上来研究问题，此时数学分析里面的求导数之尖的运算就会很自然的 引入到复平面里面，从而引出解析函数的定义。那/研究解析函数的性贡就是关楗所在。最关键的 地方就是所谓的Cauchy一Riemann公式，这个是判断一个函数是否是解析函数的关键所在。
(3) 明白解析函数的定义以及性质之后，就会把数学分析里面的曲线积分 $a$ 的概念引入复分析中， 定义几乎是一致的。在引入了闭曲线和曲线积分之后，就会有出现复分析中的重要的定理: Cauchy 积分公式。 这个是易分析的第一个重要定理。