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# 数学网课代修|概率统计代写Probability and Statistics代考|MATH1342 CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY WITH CATEGORICAL VARIABLES

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## 数学网课代修|概率统计代写Probability and Statistics代考|CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY WITH CATEGORICAL VARIABLES

Like probabilities, we also use conditional probabilities all the time without necessarily thinking about it. In fact every time we make some kind of association we implicitly use a conditional probability. I see an ageing customised car accelerating noisily away and may think ‘boy racer’ even if I have not seen the driver. Why? Because older drivers typically drive more expensive cars and more sedately, customising cars is something done far more often by men. The logic behind this is that the probability of
being a young male as opposed to a young female or older driver is conditional upon the type of car being driven. Conditional probabilities are usually shown using contingency tables. Earlier we saw the probability that adults in Europe accepted homosexuality as a normal way of life. Table $2.5$ shows the same results broken down by a selection of countries. To keep things simple, I have excluded those who said they ‘neither agreed nor disagreed’ and divided the remainder into agree and disagree, whether or not they did so ‘strongly’. This table therefore shows the results of two series of repeated trials: one recording respondents’ reaction to the statement and the other the country in which they lived.

## 数学网课代修|概率统计代写Probability and Statistics代考|CONDITIONAL PROBABILITY WITH CONTINUOUS VARIABLES

What about examining independence and conditional probability with continuous distributions? Here, we can use scatter plots instead of contingency tables. A histogram plots the number of cases (on the vertical axis) against the values for the probability distribution from a trial on the horizontal $X$ axis. A scatter plot plots both the outcomes from a series of a pair of trials as coordinates, with the values for one outcome on the horizontal axis and the values from the other on the vertical one. Egure 2.10 plots height in centimetres of the NCDS girls at age 11 against their weight in kilograms. The coordinate with the solid black centre in Figure 2.10 represents a girl who was $131 \mathrm{~cm}$ tall and weighed just under $50 \mathrm{~kg}$. If you study the scatter plot, you can see that the coordinates form a definite pattern. They are not scattered randomly about the graph but tend to form a rough ellipse that stretches from the bottom left of the graph to the top right. We could summarise the shape of the ellipse by a straight line running through its centre, which is shown as a dotted line. There were no short children who were heavy, and very few tall girls who were light, so that the top left and the bottom right quadrants of the graph are relatively empty.

## Matlab代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。