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物理代写|运动学代写Kinesiology代考|KIN289 Norm-Referenced Standards

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物理代写|运动学代写Kinesiology代考|Norm-Referenced Standards

Norm-referenced standards are developed by testing a large number of people of a defined group. Descriptive statistics are then used to develop standards. A common norming method is the use of percentile ranks. A percentile rank norm reflects the percentage of the group that can be expected to score below a given value. For example, a 1-mile run time of 11:31 for a boy 11 years of age is at the 25th percentile; only $25 \%$ ran slower, while $75 \%$ of the 11-year-old boys could be expected to run faster.

The characteristics of the group on which the standards were developed are important to consider when norm-referenced standards are to be used. The norm does not always translate to a desirable level. For example, if the average cholesterol level of men aged $40-49$ years is $214 \mathrm{mg} / \mathrm{dL}$, then this average does not represent a desirable level. A cholesterol level of less than $200 \mathrm{mg} / \mathrm{dL}$ is considered a desirable level for health. In this instance, average would not be desirable because it has been shown that there is a relationship between high levels of cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease mortality (Anderson, Castelli, \& Levy, 1987; Castelli et al., 1977; Wood et al., 1988).

物理代写|运动学代写Kinesiology代考|Criterion-Referenced Standards

A criterion-referenced standard is a predetermined standard that can be used to determine if an individual has achieved a desired level of performance. It is unlike a norm-referenced standard in that the performance of the individual is not compared with that of other individuals; instead, the performance is compared against the standard. A norm-referenced evaluation can be considered a relative evaluation-evaluation relative to norms developed on other people. A criterion-referenced evaluation can be considered an absolute evaluationevaluation by comparison to an absolute criterion.

Many authors use the term criterion-referenced test, suggesting that the difference is not just with the standard, but also with the method used to develop the test (Glaser \& Nitko, 1971; Safrit, 1989). Glaser and Nitko (1971) define a criterion-referenced test as one developed to provide measurements that are directly interpretable in terms of explicit performance standards. Although some tests used in education were constructed to be criterion-referenced tests, the more common practice is to apply a criterion-referenced standard to a test that was originally developed as a norm-referenced test. For example, the mile run is a youth fitness test item designed to assess aerobic fitness. The mile run was previously used in a norm-referenced fashion by interpreting how well the performer compared to others of the same age and sex. Currently, the mile run is used in the FITNESSGRAM ${ }^*$ in a criterion-referenced fashion to determine whether the performance met or did not meet the standard. In this instance, the test itself has not changed, but the type of standard used to evaluate aerobic fitness has changed.

Matlab代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。