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# 计算机代写|扩散模型代写Diffusion Model代考|COMP7703 Introduction: Generative Models

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## 计算机代写|扩散模型代写Diffusion Model代考|Introduction: Generative Models

Given observed samples $\boldsymbol{x}$ from a distribution of interest, the goal of a generative model is to learn to model its true data distribution $p(\boldsymbol{x})$. Once learned, we can generate new samples from our approximate model at will. Furthermore, under some formulations, we are able to use the learned model to evaluate the likelihood of observed or sampled data as well.

There are several well-known directions in current literature, that we will only introduce briefly at a high level. Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) model the sampling procedure of a complex distribution, which is learned in an adversarial manner. Another class of generative models, termed “likelihood-based”, seeks to learn a model that assigns a high likelihood to the observed data samples. This includes autoregressive models, normalizing flows, and Variational Autoencoders (VAEs). Another similar approach is energy-based modeling, in which a distribution is learned as an arbitrarily flexible energy function that is then normalized.Score-based generative models are highly related; instead of learning to model the energy function itself, they learn the score of the energy-based model as a neural network. In this work we explore and review diffusion models, which as we will demonstrate, have both likelihood-based and score-based interpretations. We showcase the math behind such models in excruciating detail, with the aim that anyone can follow along and understand what diffusion models are and how they work.

## 计算机代写|扩散模型代写Diffusion Model代考|Background: ELBO, VAE, and Hierarchical VAE

For many modalities, we can think of the data we observe as represented or generated by an associated unseen latent variable, which we can denote by random variable $\boldsymbol{z}$. The best intuition for expressing this idea is through Plato’s Allegory of the Cave. In the allegory, a group of people are chained inside a cave their entire life and can only see the two-dimensional shadows projected onto a wall in front of them, which are generated by unseen three-dimensional objects passed before a fire. To such people, everything they observe is actually determined by higher-dimensional abstract concepts that they can never behold.

Analogously, the objects that we encounter in the actual world may also be generated as a function of some higher-level representations; for example, such representations may encapsulate abstract properties such as color, size, shape, and more. Then, what we observe can be interpreted as a three-dimensional projection or instantiation of such abstract concepts, just as what the cave people observe is actually a two-dimensional projection of three-dimensional objects. Whereas the cave people can never see (or even fully comprehend) the hidden objects, they can still reason and draw inferences about them; in a similar way, we can approximate latent representations that describe the data we observe.

Whereas Plato’s Allegory illustrates the idea behind latent variables as potentially unobservable representations that determine observations, a caveat of this analogy is that in generative modeling, we generally seek to learn lower-dimensional latent representations rather than higher-dimensional ones. This is because trying to learn a representation of higher dimension than the observation is a fruitless endeavor without strong priors. On the other hand, learning lower-dimensional latents can also be seen as a form of compression, and can potentially uncover semantically meaningful structure describing observations.

# 扩散模型代写

## Matlab代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。