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# 物理代写|粒子物理学作业代写Nuclear and Particle Physics代考|A history of particle physics

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## 物理代写|粒子物理学作业代写Nuclear and Particle Physics代考|Earliest stages

The early part of the 20th century saw the development of quantum theory and nuclear physics, of which particle physics detached itself around 1950. By the late 1920 ‘s one knew about the existence of the atomic nucleus, the electron and the proton. I shall start this history in 1927, the year in which the new quantum theory was introduced. In that year $\beta$ decay was discovered as well: Some elements emit electrons with a continuous spectrum of energy. Energy conservation doesn’t allow for this possibility (nuclear levels are discrete!). This led to the realization, in 1929, by Wolfgang Pauli that one needs an additional particle to carry away the remaining energy and momentum. This was called a neutrino (small neutron) by Fermi, who also developed the first theoretical model of the process in 1933 for the decay of the neutron
$$n \rightarrow p+e^{-}+\bar{\nu}_{e}$$
which had been discovered in $1931 .$
In 1928 Paul Dirac combined quantum mechanics and relativity in an equation for the electron. This equation had some more solutions than required, which were not well understood. Only in 1931 Dirac realized that these solutions are physical: they describe the positron, a positively charged electron, which is the antiparticle of the electron. This particle was discovered in the same year, and I would say that particle physics starts there.

## 物理代写|粒子物理学作业代写Nuclear and Particle Physics代考|fission and fusion

Fission of radioactive elements was already well established in the early part of the century, and activation by neutrons, to generate more unstable isotopes, was investigated before fission of natural isotopes was seen. The inverse process, fusion, was understood somewhat later, and Niels Bohr developped a model describing the nucleus as a fluid drop. This model – the collective model – was further developped by his son Aage Bohr and Ben Mottelson. A very different model of the nucleus, the shell model, was designed by Maria GoeppertMayer and Hans Jensen in 1952, concentrating on individual nucleons. The dichotomy between a description as individual particles and as a collective whole characterises much of “low-energy” nuclear physics.

## 物理代写|粒子物理学作业代写NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS代考|Low-energy nuclear physics

The field of low-energy nuclear physics, which concentrates mainly on structure of and low-energy reaction on nuclei, has become one of the smaller parts of nuclear physics (apart from in the UK). Notable results have included better understanding of the nuclear medium, high-spin physics, superdeformation and halo nuclei. Current experimental interest is in those nuclei near the “driplines” which are of astrophysical importance, as well as of other interest.

## 物理代写|粒子物理学作业代写NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS代考|Medium-energy nuclear physics

Medium energy nuclear physics is interested in the response of a nucleus to probes at such energies that we can no longer consider nucleons to be elementary particles. Most modern experiments are done by electron scattering, and concentrate on the role of QCD (see below) in nuclei, the structure of mesons in nuclei and other complicated questions.

## 物理代写|粒子物理学作业代写NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS代考|EARLIEST STAGES

20世纪初，量子理论和核物理学发展起来，其中粒子物理学在1950年前后独立出来。到1920年代后期，人们知道了原子核、电子和质子的存在。我将在 1927 年开始这段历史，这一年引入了新的量子理论。在那年b衰变也被发现：一些元素发射具有连续能量谱的电子。能量守恒不允许这种可能性n在Cl和一种rl和在和ls一种r和d一世sCr和吨和!. 这导致沃尔夫冈泡利在 1929 年意识到需要一个额外的粒子来带走剩余的能量和动量。这被称为中微子s米一种lln和在吨r这n费米于 1933 年开发了第一个中子衰变过程的理论模型
n→p+和−+ν¯和

1928 年，保罗·狄拉克将量子力学和相对论结合在一个电子方程中。这个方程有一些比要求更多的解，这些解还不是很清楚。直到 1931 年，狄拉克才意识到这些解决方案是物理的：它们描述了正电子，一个带正电的电子，它是电子的反粒子。这个粒子是在同一年被发现的，我想说粒子物理学是从那里开始的。

## Matlab代写

MATLAB 是一种用于技术计算的高性能语言。它将计算、可视化和编程集成在一个易于使用的环境中，其中问题和解决方案以熟悉的数学符号表示。典型用途包括：数学和计算算法开发建模、仿真和原型制作数据分析、探索和可视化科学和工程图形应用程序开发，包括图形用户界面构建MATLAB 是一个交互式系统，其基本数据元素是一个不需要维度的数组。这使您可以解决许多技术计算问题，尤其是那些具有矩阵和向量公式的问题，而只需用 C 或 Fortran 等标量非交互式语言编写程序所需的时间的一小部分。MATLAB 名称代表矩阵实验室。MATLAB 最初的编写目的是提供对由 LINPACK 和 EISPACK 项目开发的矩阵软件的轻松访问，这两个项目共同代表了矩阵计算软件的最新技术。MATLAB 经过多年的发展，得到了许多用户的投入。在大学环境中，它是数学、工程和科学入门和高级课程的标准教学工具。在工业领域，MATLAB 是高效研究、开发和分析的首选工具。MATLAB 具有一系列称为工具箱的特定于应用程序的解决方案。对于大多数 MATLAB 用户来说非常重要，工具箱允许您学习应用专业技术。工具箱是 MATLAB 函数（M 文件）的综合集合，可扩展 MATLAB 环境以解决特定类别的问题。可用工具箱的领域包括信号处理、控制系统、神经网络、模糊逻辑、小波、仿真等。