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经济代写|宏观经济学代考Macroeconomics代写|The Effects of a Change in Demand

如果你也在 怎样代写宏观经济学Macroeconomics 这个学科遇到相关的难题,请随时右上角联系我们的24/7代写客服。宏观经济学Macroeconomics对国家或地区经济整体行为的研究。它关注的是对整个经济事件的理解,如商品和服务的生产总量、失业水平和价格的一般行为。宏观经济学关注的是经济体的表现–经济产出、通货膨胀、利率和外汇兑换率以及国际收支的变化。减贫、社会公平和可持续增长只有在健全的货币和财政政策下才能实现。

宏观经济学Macroeconomics(来自希腊语前缀makro-,意思是 “大 “+经济学)是经济学的一个分支,处理整个经济体的表现、结构、行为和决策。例如,使用利率、税收和政府支出来调节经济的增长和稳定。这包括区域、国家和全球经济。根据经济学家Emi Nakamura和Jón Steinsson在2018年的评估,经济 “关于不同宏观经济政策的后果的证据仍然非常不完善,并受到严重批评。宏观经济学家研究的主题包括GDP(国内生产总值)、失业(包括失业率)、国民收入、价格指数、产出、消费、通货膨胀、储蓄、投资、能源、国际贸易和国际金融。


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经济代写|宏观经济学代考Macroeconomics代写|Changes in the Number of Buyers (N)

经济代写|宏观经济学代考Macroeconomics代写|The Effects of a Change in Supply

Like a shift in demand, a shift in the supply curve-caused by a change in input prices, prices of related products, expectations, number of suppliers or technology-will also influence both equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity, assuming that demand for the product has not changed. For example, what impact would favorable weather conditions have in coffeeproducing countries? Such conditions could cause an increase in the supply of coffee. At any given price, sellers now want to produce and sell more coffee. At the original equilibrium price of $P_1$, consumers still want to buy $Q_1$, but sellers are now willing to supply $Q_3$, as seen in Exhibit 2(a). This creates a surplus at price, $P_1$. Sellers compete to sell the surplus by reducing the price. As the price falls, the quantity demanded increases (a movement down along the demand curve) and the quantity supplied decreases along the new supply curve, $S_2$ until quantity supplied and quantity demanded are equal again at the new equilibrium quantity, $Q_2$. The process results in a new equilibrium, $E_2$, at a lower equilibrium price, $P_2$ and a higher equilibrium quantity $Q_2$.
What impact would unfavorable weather conditions have in coffee-producing countries? Such conditions could cause a reduction in the supply of coffee. At any given price, sellers now want to sell less coffee. At the original equilibrium price of $P_1$, consumers still want to buy $Q_1$, but sellers are now only willing to supply $Q_3$. Thus, a shortage develops as seen in Exhibit 2(b). Competition among competing buyers for the limited quantity supplied forces the price up.
As the price increases, the quantity demanded decreases (a movement along the demand curve) and the quantity supplied increases (a movement up along the new supply curve, $S_2$ ) until the quantity demanded and quantity supplied are equal again at the new equilibrium quantity, $Q_2$. The process results in a new equilibrium, $E_2$, at a higher equilibrium price, $P_2$ and a lower equilibrium quantity, $Q_2$.
In short, given a downward-sloping demand curve, an increase in supply will lead to a lower equilibrium price and a greater equilibrium quantity. A decrease in supply will lead to a higher equilibrium price and a lower equilibrium quantity.

经济代写|宏观经济学代考Macroeconomics代写|The Effects of Changes in Both Supply and Demand

We have discussed that, as part of the continual process of adjustment that occurs in the marketplace, supply and demand can each shift in response to many different factors, with the market then adjusting toward the new equilibrium. We have, so far, only considered what happens when just one such change occurs at a time. In these cases, we learned that the results of the adjustments in supply and demand on the equilibrium price and quantity are predictable. However, both supply and demand will often shift in the same time period. Can we predict what will happen to equilibrium prices and equilibrium quantities in these situations?
As you will see, when supply and demand move at the same time, we can predict the change in one variable (price or quantity), but we are unable to predict the direction of the effect on the other variable with any certainty. The change in the second variable, then, is said to be indeterminate because it cannot be determined without additional information about the size of the relative shifts in supply and demand. This concept will become clearer to you as we work through the following example.
An Increase in Supply and a Decrease in Demand
In Exhibits 4(a) and 4(b), we have an increase in supply and a decrease in demand. These changes will clearly result in a decrease in the equilibrium price because both the increase in supply and the decrease in demand work to push this price down. This drop in equilibrium price (from $P_1$ to $P_2$ ) is shown in the movement from $E_1$ to $E_2$ in Exhibits 4 (a) and 4(b).
The effect of these changes on equilibrium price is clear, but how does the equilibrium quantity change? The impact on equilibrium quantity is indeterminate because the increase in supply increases the equilibrium quantity and the decrease in demand decreases it. In this scenario, the change in the equilibrium quantity will vary depending on the relative changes in supply and demand. If, as shown in Exhibit 4(a), the decrease in demand is greater than the increase in supply, the equilibrium quantity will decrease. If, however, as shown in Exhibit $4(b)$, the increase in supply is greater than the decrease in demand, the equilibrium quantity will increase.
An Increase in Demand and Supply
It is also possible that both supply and demand will increase (or decrease). This situation, for example, has happened with high-definition (HD) televisions (and with laptops, cell phones, tablet computers, digital cameras, and other electronic equipment, too). As a result of technological breakthroughs, the prices of component parts falling, and new factories manufacturing HD televisions, the supply curve for HD televisions shifted to the right. That is, at any given price, more HD televisions were offered than before. But with rising income and an increasing number of buyers in the market, the demand for HD televisions increased as well. As shown in Exhibit 5, both the increased demand and the increased supply caused an increase in the equilibrium quantity-more HD televisions were sold. The equilibrium price could have gone either up (because of increased demand) or down (because of increased supply), depending on the relative sizes of the demand and supply shifts. In this case, price is the indeterminate variable. However, in the case of HD televisions, we know that the supply curve shifted more than the demand curve, so that the effect of increased supply pushing prices down outweighed the effect of increased demand pushing prices up. As a result, the equilibrium price of $\mathrm{HD}$ televisions has fallen (from $P_1$ to $P_2$ ) over time.

经济代写|宏观经济学代考Macroeconomics代写|The Effects of a Change in Demand


经济代写|宏观经济学代考Macroeconomics代写|The Effects of a Change in Supply


经济代写|宏观经济学代考Macroeconomics代写|The Effects of Changes in Both Supply and Demand

供给和需求也可能同时增加(或减少)。例如,这种情况发生在高清电视(以及笔记本电脑、手机、平板电脑、数码相机和其他电子设备)上。由于技术的突破,零部件价格的下降,以及制造高清电视的新工厂,高清电视的供应曲线向右平移。也就是说,在任何给定价格下,提供的高清电视都比以前多。但随着收入的增加和市场上买家数量的增加,对高清电视的需求也在增加。如表5所示,需求的增加和供给的增加都导致了均衡数量的增加——售出了更多的高清电视。均衡价格可以上升(因为需求增加)也可以下降(因为供给增加),这取决于需求和供给变化的相对大小。在这种情况下,价格是不确定变量。然而,就高清电视而言,我们知道供给曲线的位移大于需求曲线的位移,因此,供给增加推动价格下降的影响大于需求增加推动价格上涨的影响。因此,随着时间的推移,$ $ mathm {HD}$电视的均衡价格已经下降(从$ $P_1$降至$ $P_2$)。


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